Turkmenistan has the oldest history in Central Asia.
The Bronze Age historical UNESCO world heritage site of Gonur Depe the capital of Margush Kingdom, located 100 km north of Mary city, was another civilization cradle began 4300 years ago.
Merv, another UNESCO heritage site, was the biggest city on the Silk Road in 12 century AD. Merv became famous for having 12 libraries and attracting and hosting famous scholars from all parts of Central Asia. These libraries and their books burned by Mongols in 1221 AD.
Merv was noted for having various religious groups lived together in peace and harmony for centuries.
Another UNESCO world heritage site is Kunya Urgench, with the highest minaret in Central Asia, located in North-West of Turkmenistan. Unique pointed-dome mausoleums of Khorezmshah Il Arslan and Soltan Tekesh are worth visiting.
The UNESCO heritage site of Nisa, the first capital of Parthian Empire, located 15 km west of Ashgabat established in 247 BC.
Nisa on the Silk Road became a significant strategic point for Parthians that ruled a vast area of the Silk Road from Indus River in India to Tigris River in Mesopotamia.
Parthians during almost five centuries of their ruling time became rich and powerful, rivaling the Roman Empire.
Constructing arches was a special technique of architecture, not known in the East before, spread by captive Roman soldiers after Marcus Crassus’ army was defeated by Parthian army general Surena during Carrhae Battle in 53 BC.